Text 1 UMPTN 1999 Rayon A
In almost every developing country, the lack of adequate supplies of cheap, convenient and reliable fuel is a major problem. Rural communities depend largely on kerosene, wood, and dung for their cooking and lighting needs, but kerosene is now priced out of reach of many people and wood, except in heavily forested areas, is in
short supply. The search for firewood occupies a large * part of working day and has resulted in widespread deforestation.
Dung is in constant supply wherever there are farm animals and. when dried, it is convenient to store and use. But burning dung destroy its value as fertilizer, thus depriving the soil of a much needed source of humus and nitrogen.
Rural areas of developing countries are also plagued by a lack of adequate sanitation. Improper waste disposal spreads disease, contaminates water sources and provides feeding grounds for disease-carrying insects.
The problem of improving environmental hygiene, conserving sources, and finding alternative source of fuel may be unrelated. Their solution, however, are not, as many countries experimenting with biogas technology are discovering. Biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, is produced by the fermentation of organic matter. The process of anaerobic fermentation is a natural one. Occurring whenever living matter decomposes. By keeping the matter-and the process-in a digester or biogas plan, the combustible gas can be trapped and used as fuel for household lighting and cooking. The digested slurry that remains can be used on the land as a soil conditioner and fertilizer.
16. UMPTN 1999 Rayon A No 66
What are the two problems mentioned in the text?
A. Pollution and the high price of fuel
B. Widespread deforestation and the use of dung
C. The lack of adequate fuel and hygienic conditions
D. The lack of humus and nitrogen in the soil
E. Contaminated water sources and rural areas
17. UMPTN 1999 Rayon A No. 67
What is the text mainly about?
A. Socio-economic problems in developing countries
B. The process of producing biogas
C. The effect of burning dung on the soil
D. Biogas as a solution to many problems
E. The advantages of using dung as fuel
18. UMPTN 1999 Rayon A No. 68
The disadvantage of traditional fuel used in developing countries is that they .....
A. reduce people's energy
B. are difficult to extract
C. make the soil poor
D. do not meet people needs
E. cause damage to the environment
19. UMPTN 1999 Rayon A No. 69
The main factor causing the lack of adequate sanitation is .
A. the domestic use of biogas
B. the great number of farm animals
C. the pollution of water sources
D. the badly-managed waste disposal
E. the increase of disease-carrying insects
20. UMPTN 1999 Rayon A No. 70
Why is the digested slurry of the fermented organic
matter considered valuable?
A. It improves the quality of soil for agriculture
B. It increases the export from developing countries
C. It is considered a relatively cheap fertilizer
D. ft is the best fertilizer in the world
E. It can be used as fuel for cooking
Text / UMPTN 1999 Rayon B
Though some foods, such as rice, wheat and other cereals, can be ripened and then stored for years before they deteriorate, other foods, such as meat and fish, normally deteriorate quickly. Generally, if food is to be eaten weeks or months after it has been killed or harvested, the process of decay must be halted by treating the food in a way which does not make it unpalatable. But no single method of preservation is suitable for all types of food.
The traditional method of dying, smoking, salting or pickling food were widely used long before it was known why these methods were effective. It is now known that the process of decay are accelerated by enzymes already present in the food jells and bacteria or other microorganisms which maybe present or may come from external sources IV presen e food from decav. it is necessary either to destroy the bacteria or to create an environment in which bacteria cannot multiply and enzimes are inactivated. Bacteria can be destroyed by heat, and be inactivated by depriving them of moisture. Enzimes can be inactivated by cold or by reducing the moisture content.
The moisture content of food can be reduced by drying it in the sun or by other means. Meat or fish suspended over a smoking fire is partly dried and the smoke also has bactericidal properties. But to understand why salt ami vinegar are effective preservatives, it is necessary to consider some physical properties.
21. UMPTN 1999 Rayon B No. 66
The topic of the whole text is____________ .
A. food preservation
B. the prucess of decay
C. the enzymes in food cells
D. the best method of drying meat
E. the moisture content of food
22. UMPTN 1999 Rayon B No 67
What speeds up the processes of decay?
A. Moisture and heat
B. Enzymes and heat
C. Bacteria and moisture
D. Enzymes and bacteria
E. Moisture and enzymes
23. UMPTN 1999 Rayon B No. 68
Smoke is used to preserve meat because it_________
A. improves the taste of meat
B. reduces the number of food cells
C. dries the meat and kills the bacteria
D. promote the growth of micro-organisms
E. accelerates the process of activating enzymes
24. UMPTN 1999 Rayon B No. 69
... the process of decay must be halted by treating the food in a wav which does not make it unpalatable (lines 3-5)
The underlined words indicate that the food is treated in a way that can .
A. keep the food fresh
B. preserve the flavor of the food
C. prevent the food from getting soft
D. make the food taste much better
E. store the food for later use
25. UMPTN 1999 .Rayon B No. 70
Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about methods of preserving?
A. Our ancestors knew several methods of preservation
B. Pickling vegetables is an old way of preservation
C. Dry ing fish in the sun is a familiar method of preservation
D. Traditional methods of preservation are very effective
E. The only correct method of preservation for every kind of food is smoking
Text I UMPTN 1999 Rayon C
Many of us still believe that in order to be healthy we must have eight hours of sleep a night; or that if we sleep poorly over a period of time, we'll get lines in our faces, bags under our eyes, a worn look, and worst of all, be unable to perform our daily tasks effectively.
"Untrue." says Dr. Alice Kuhn Schwartz, psychologist and co-author of Somniquest. "You may look awful to yourself, but except for the first hour or so in the morning when you probably will be puffy-eyed due to depletion of a certain hormone that's the result of lack of sleep, you’ll soon look like your usual self and perform normally. If you do feel worn, the cause is stress. Also, there is no number of hours you must sleep to maintain good health. Some people get along beautifully on four and a half hour, others sleep nine hours. Anywhere within that range is normal."
Recent studies of patient at sleep clinic have revealed significant facts about the cause of insomnia as well as ways to deal with it. It is no surprise that stress and depression (over family, health, job, or other problems) are
linked to insomnia. Also, insomnia may be caused by physical illness; itching, aches, asthma, arthritis, ulcers, and heart problems that involve shortness of breath or difficult in breathing.
In order to overcome insomnia, millions of Americans turn to drugs-both over-the-counter drugs and prescription drug. "No pill will produce normal sleep." says Dr. James Minard, sponsor of Sleep Studies at New Jersey Medical School. "You reach no proper levels of sleep through a pill; you're merely sedated."
26. UMPTN 1999 Rayon C No. 66
The topic of the text is___________ .
A. the role of sleep in keeping us healthy
B. the way people look after a sleepless night
C. the way to overcome insomnia
D. the result of not being able to sleep
E. opinion and findings on insomnia
27. UMPTN 1999 Rayon C No. 67
Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE according to Dr. Schwartz?
A. Lack of sleep may lead to the depletion of a certain hormone
B. Some people need more sleep than others
C. If people do not enough sleep, they will work inefficiently
D. Stress is one of the causes of insomnia
E. Health does not depend on the hours of sleep
28. UMPTN 1999 Rayon C No. 68
'You may look awful to yourself in line 4 - 5 implies that .
A. others do not look awful
B. you do not see that you look awful
C. others find that you look awful
D. you think that others do not look well
E. you may loo^ fine to others
29. UMPTN 1999 Rayon C No. 69
Findings show that the following are causes of insomnia. except .
A. illnesses D. tiredness
B. headaches E. frustration
30. From the text we may conclude that_____________ .
A. studies have found the cure for insomnia
B. insomnia may lead to heavy depression
C. pills are an effective cure for insomnia
D. sleep clinics are becoming very popular
E. insomnia cannot be cured by drugs
Kunci Jawaban Bahasa Inggris 2 Reading text UMPTN (part 2)
16. Dua permasalahan yang dipaparkan wacana adalah ketidakmemadainya bahan bakar, seperti diulas paragraf I dan 2, dan kondisi kesehatan lingkungan yang memprihatinkan, seperti terlihat pada paragraf 3 dan 4.
Jawaban : C
17. Dari deskriptif tentang kekurangan bahan bakar dengan berbagai penyebab dan pengaruhnya pada paragraf pertama dan kedua, dan ulasan keberadaaan kondisi kesehatan lingkungan yang memprihatinkan pada paragrag 3 dan 4, dapat disimpulkan bahwa wacana di atas hendak mengetengahkan masalah- masalah sosial-ekonomi (socio-economic problems) di negara-negara berkembang.
Jawaban : A
18. Pada kalimat terakhir paragraf pertama dinyatakan bahwa pencarian kayu bakar telah mengakibatkan meluasnya penggundulan hutan (the search for firewood ... has resulted in widespread deforestation), dan pada kalimat terakhir paragraf kedua dinyatakan bahwa pembakaran kotoran hewan merusak kandungan kotoran itu sebagai pupuk yang padahal sangat dibutuhkan oleh tanah sebagai sumber humus dan nitrogen (...burning dung destroys its value as fertilizer, thus depriving the soil of much needed source of humus and nitrogen). Dengan demikian penggunaan bahan bakar tradisional seperti di atas memiliki mudbarat/kerugian karena dapat mengakibatkan gangguan lingkungan (cause damage to the environment).
Jawaban : E
19. Faktor utama yang mengakibatkan kekurang- memadainya kondisi kesehatan lingkungan adalah, seperti dinyatakan kalimat terakhir paragraf ke 3, pembuangan sampah yang tdak teratur (badly man- aged' improper waste disposal).
Jawaban : D
20. Kalimat terakhir paragraf terakhir menyatakan The diggested slurry that remains can be used on the land as soil conditioner and fertilizer’, bahwa lumpur yang tersisa dapat digunakan sebagai bahan perangsang dan pupuk bagi tanah. Ini mengartikan bahwa lumpur tadi (slurry) dapat meningkatkan kualitas tanah.
Jawaban : A
21. Paparan wacana dengan jelas mengulas mengapa dan bagaimana melakukah pengawetan makanan (food preservation).
Jawaban : A
22. Seperti dinyatakan kalimat kedua paragraf 2 'It is now known that the processes of decay are accelerated by enzimes already present in the food cells and by bacteria or other micro-organisms which may be already present' bahwa proses pembusukan dipercepat oleh hadirnya enzim dan bakteria. Accelerated = speed up.
Jawaban : D
23. Seperti dipaparkan kalimat kedua paragraf 3 'Meat or fish suspended over a smoking fire is partly dried and the smoke also has bactericidal properties' bahwa daging atau ikan digantung di atas perapian untuk dikeringkan, dan asap (dan perapian) mengandung zat-zat pembunuh bakteri.
Jawaban : C
24. Arti dari kalimat 'by treating the food in a way which does not make it unpalatable' adalah mengolah makanan sedemikian rupa dengan tidak menjadikan makanan tersebut tidak enak. Ini sama aninya dengan usaha tersebut dilakukan dengan tetap menjaga cita- rasa makanan bersangkutan (preset e the flatour of the food).
Jawaban : B
25. Pilihan (E) berkontadiksi dengan pcrnyataan kalimat terakhir paragraf pertama yang menyatakan bahwa tak ada satu pun metode pengawetan yang cocok untuk digunakan bagi semua jents makanan, yang mengimplikasikan setiap jenis makanan akan mengambil metode yang berlainan
Jawaban : E
26. Inti cerita yang disampaikan wacana berkisar tentang ragam pendapat dan temuan-temuan berkenaan dengan gejala susah tidur (opinions and findings on insomnia). Ini terlihat dari kontraslif pendapat kebanyakan kita pada paragraf 1 dengan pendapat yangdikemukakanoleh Dr. Alice Kuhn Schwart pada paragraf 2 dengan paparan bukti empirik pada paragraf 3 dan 4.
Jawaban : E
27. Pilihan (C) berkontradiksi dengan sanggahan Dr.Alice: 'Untrue' (tidak benar) yang merujuk pada pernyataan kalimat terakhir paragraf : be unable to perform daily task efficiently' (orang kurang tidur tidak bisa melakukan tugasnya sehari-hari dengan efisien).
Jawaban : C
28. You may look awful to yourself memiliki pengertian 'Anda mengkin kelihaian mengerikan bagi diri sendiri’, yang belum tentu bagi orang lain dimana orang lain mungkin tidak tahu tampang normal Anda sediakalanya.
Jajahan : E
29. Yang bukan penyebab insomnia adalah kelelahan (tiredness).
Jawaban : D
30. Dari pernyataan-pernyataan kalimat terakhir'No pill will produce normal sleep' (tidak ada pil yang dapat membawa pada tidur normal) dan 'You reach no proper levels of sleep through pill: youYe merely sedated' (Anda tidak akan mencapai tingkat tidur yang semestinya dengan perantara pil. anda hanya tenang dibuatnya), mengimplikasikan bahwa insomnia/ susah tidur memang tidak bisa disembuhkan oleh obat (insomnia cannot be cured by drugs).
Jawaban : E